NEJČTENĚJŠÍ ČLÁNKY





slovanska unie

PŘIHLÁŠENÍ



Skepticizm koronavirusa, fanatizm i morbidna religijozita

Job Telmessky

(English text follows) Prěvod do MS jezyka od Vojtěcha Merunky iz anglijsky pisanogo članka profesora i arhiepiskopa Ekumeničskogo patriarhata Joba Telmiskogo, ktory jest direktorom postojanoj misije Ekumeničskogo patrijarhata pri Světovom sovětu crkv v švejcarskoj Ženevě i dekanom Instituta za vyšejše učenje pravoslavnoj theologije v Chambésy v Švejcariji.

Pandemija koronavirusa, ktora potresla svět v poslědnyh deveti měsecev, objavila različne formy fanatizma. Prvo objavili se koronavirusni skeptiki. Često odkazujući se na vse sorty konspiračnyh teorij, taki ljudi odmetajut diskurz nauky. Čto se tyče prav člověka, jihno stanovišće jest vyše individualno od kolektivnogo, zatože oni vyše myslet na svoju sebeljubnu svobodu ale menše na blago spoločenstva. Odklanjajut se od zdravotnyh obmedženj prisudženyh civilnymi avtoritetami do ohrany populacije, kako jest napriměr obvezno nošenje ustnyh mask, i napadajut potrěbnost širokoj vakcinacije. V tečenju poslědnyh měsecev jesmo viděli v različnyh čestah světa publične demonstracije organizovane takymi koronavirusnymi skeptikami.

Něktori koronavirusni skeptiki držet raděje magičny pristup, zatože obvažajut svoje stanje ili svoju věru izdržlive od virusa. To možno viděti v različnyh religijah světa. Zatom, skepticizm često jest povezany s religijoznym fanatizmom. Taki fundamentalisti myslet, že jihno město religijoznoj aktivnosti jest někakym čudom zaščićeno od virusa, i zato ne trěba držeti zdravotne obmedženja, ktore po tutoj pričině ignorujut. Kritikujut državne intervencije do svojih religijoznyh aktivnostij, obače tomu, že sut dělane za spoločno dobro. Na žalost, religijozno ubědženje koronavirus ne zadržaje, kako dokazajut sinagogy, masdžidy, hramy i monastiry v vsem světu stavajući se centrami širjenja infekcije, čto razvodžaje bolestnost daže i smrt mnogyh ljudij v vsem spoločenstvu. Něktori fanatiki od takyh slučajev pokazyvajut na religiju kako by byla ugrozoju spoločenstva.

Medžuvrěmenno v Franciji, kde odbyvaje se sud islamskoj ataky iz januara 2015 protiv francuzskomu satiričnomu tydnjevomu žurnalu Charlie Hebdo, ktory v prošlosti publikoval provokativne karikatury proroka Mohameda, muž naměrjeny na byvše kancelarije žurnala, ktory nedavno ponovo odtiskal stare karikatury, poranil 25-ogo septembra 2020 v Parižu dva ljudi. Razuměje se, že novomu odtiskanju staryh karikatur možno razuměti kako nedostatku respekta i daže blasfemiji do mnogyh ljudij, i rěšiteljno odražajućemu neprigodno vrěme. Tako odkryvaje se konflikt medžu dvěma formami ekstremizma: Medžu sekularnym i religijoznym, ktory toliko razvodžaje nenavist medžu ljudimi, i ktory jest odgovorny za tragičnu smrt nevinnyh.

Kako možemo viděti, pandemija koronavirusa ukazala, že svět ješče ne jest osvobodžen od fanatizma. Švejcarsky psihiatr i psihoanalitik Carl Gustav Jung (1875–1961) često govoril, že «fanatizm jest vsegda prisutny brat sumněnja.» Po jego slovah, «fanatizm možno viděti toliko u takyh ljudij, ktori trěbujut strimati svoje skryte sumněnja», i po tutoj pričině daže razrěšil, že «konvertiti sut najgoršimi fanatikami.» Svety i veliky koncil Pravoslavnoj crkvy (Kreta, 2016) ostrěgal nas od ugrozy religijoznogo fanatizma: «Eksplozije fundamentalizma v religijoznyh obćinah ugrožajut tvorjenjem pomysla, že fundamentalizm naleži do osnovy fenomena religije.» Obače tomu pravda toliko jest, že fundamentalizm kako «gorlivost bez pravoj znalosti (Rimjanom 10:2) prědstavjaje izraženje morbidnoj religijozity (Enciklika, 17).»

Lěpši svět od nas čekaje sorabotu vměsto konfrontacije, dialog vměsto ideologije. Religija i nauka trěbujut rukoju v rukě rabotati za blago člověčstva. Religija i državy trěbujut sorabotati za spravědlivost, pokoj i zdravje ljudskyh bytostij. Vse formy fanatizma, libo li religijoznogo ili sekularnogo, trěba izgubiti pomočju edukacije i dialoga, da by izbudoval se svět poslě fanatizma. Koronavirusova kriza jest dana udobnomožnost prěmogti naše individualizm i sebeljubje pomoćju kultivacije altruizma i poděljenja se. Mogla by to byti možnost mysleti na drugogo, starati se za blago svojego susěda, poděliti se s nudžajućimi, pomagati v nebezpečnosti, i bezbranne čuvati i braniti.

Kako obsvětlila Enciklika Svetogo i velikogo koncila Pravoslavnoj crkvy: «Pravy hristijan, slědujući priměr Gospoda na križu, žertvuje sebe i ne žertvuje drugyh, i po tutoj pričině jest najtvrdšim kritikom fundamentalizma libokakogo povoda. Čestny medžureligijozny dialog prinosi razvoj vzajemnogo dověrjenja i poddrživanja pokoja i pomirjenja (Enciklika, 17).» Pandemija izjavila, že svět mnogo trěbuje počutje humanity.


Coronavirus scepticism, fanaticism and morbid religiosity

Job of Telmessos
(English original from September 30, 2020, written by prof. Job of Telmessos who is an Archbishop of the Ecumenical Patriarchate in Constantinople and the Permanent Representative of the Ecumenical Patriarchate to the World Council of Churches and the Dean of the Institute for Orthodox Theology Higher Studies at Chambésy, Switzerland.)

The pandemic of coronavirus that has shaken the world for the last nine months has revealed different forms of fanaticism. First of all, it has revealed coronavirus sceptics. Often referring to all sorts of conspiracy theories, they generally reject the discourse of science. Referring to human rights, their attitude is rather individual than collective, since they think more about their selfish freedom than the wellbeing of the society. They reject the health restrictions imposed by the civil authorities in order to protect the population, such as wearing mandatory face coverings, and they contest the need of mass vaccinations. In different parts of the world, we have seen during the past months several public demonstrations held by such coronavirus sceptics.

Some coronavirus sceptics have a rather magic approach, considering that their status, or their faith, is not concerned by the virus. This has been noticed within different world religions. Thus, coronavirus skepticism is often linked with religious fanaticism. Such fundamentalists consider that their place of worship is somehow miraculously protected from the virus, and therefore not concerned by the health restrictions imposed by the civil authorities, which they therefore ignore. They criticize the intervention of State in their religious worship, even though this is done for the common good. Unfortunately, the coronavirus is not stopped by religious convictions, and thus, we have witnessed some synagogues, mosques, temples, churches and monasteries around the world becoming clusters of propagation of the disease, thus fostering illness and even death of numerous people within the society at large. In these cases, religion has been pointed out by some other fanatics as being a threat for society.

Meanwhile, in France, while a trial is taking place over the January 2015 Islamist attack against the French satirical weekly newspaper Charlie Hebdo that had published in the past provocative cartoons of prophet Mohammad, a man has injured two people in Paris on 25 September 2020, targeting the former offices of the magazine that had recently reprinted the old cartoons. Of course, the reprint of these drawings could be seen as a lack of respect and even blasphemous to some people, and definitely reflects a bad timing. This reveals once again a confrontation between those who claim for an extreme freedom of speech and those who accuse their rivals of blasphemy. Thus, a conflict appears between two forms of fanaticism: between a secular and a religious one, which only cultivates hatred between people and which is responsible for the tragic death of innocents.

As we can see, the pandemic of coronavirus has pointed out that the world is still not freed from fanaticism. The Swiss psychiatrist and psychoanalyst Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961) used to say that “fanaticism is the always present brother of doubt”. According to him, “fanaticism is only found in those who have to suppress secret doubts”, and for this reason he even considered that “converts are always the worse fanatics”. The Holy and Great Council of the Orthodox Church (Crete, 2016) has warned us of the dangers of religious fundamentalism: “The explosions of fundamentalism within religious communities threaten to create the view that fundamentalism belongs to the essence of the phenomenon of religion.” The truth, however, is that fundamentalism, as “zeal not based on knowledge” (Rom 10.2), “constitutes an expression of morbid religiosity” (Encyclical, 17).

A better world is expecting from us collaboration instead of confrontation, dialogue instead of ideology. Religion and science have to work hand in hand for the well-being of humanity. Religions and States have to collaborate for justice, peace and health of human beings. Any form of fanaticism, whether religious or secular, has to be eradicated through education and dialogue, in order to build the world of after. The coronavirus crisis is a given opportunity to overcome our individualism and selfishness by cultivating altruism and sharing. This should be an occasion to think of the other, to care about the wellbeing of one’s neighbor, to share with those in need, to help those in danger, to protect and defend the vulnerable.

As the Encyclical of The Holy and Great Council of the Orthodox Church highlighted: “A true Christian, following the example of the crucified Lord, sacrifices himself and does not sacrifice others, and for this reason is the most stringent critic of fundamentalism of whatever provenance. Honest interfaith dialogue contributes to the development of mutual trust and to the promotion of peace and reconciliation” (Encyclical, 17). The pandemic has revealed that the world is in great need of a sense of humanity.

slovanska unie